Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: The Last Hour would not come until the Romans would land at al-A'maq or in Dabiq. Accounts of what followed differ. The Syriac chroniclers also disagree with Theophanes in placing the decisive battle and destruction of the Arab fleet by Greek fire in 674 during an Arab expedition against the coasts of Lycia and Cilicia, rather than Constantinople. Locally, the Romans ruled Egypt from the capital of Alexandria, and from the ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis, with its great bulwark, the fortress of Babylon, on the eastern bank of the Nile. He stopped to pray and then demanded that all further looting cease immediately. The conquest of Constantinople and the fall of the Byzantine Empire was a key event of the Late Middle Ages and is sometimes considered the end of the Medieval period. The preparations for this conquest started at the time of the khalifah … [66], On the other hand, the historian Marek Jankowiak argues that a major Arab siege did occur but that Theophanes (writing about 140 years after the events, based on an anonymous source itself written about 50 years after the events) misdated and garbled the events, and that the proper dating of the siege should be 667–669, with spring 668 for the major attack. The Second Arab Siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople. [39] At the same time, the failure of the Arab attack on Constantinople was a momentous event in itself. Howard-Johnston asserts that no siege actually took place, based not only on its absence in the eastern sources, but also on the logistical impossibility of such an undertaking for the duration reported. Then the Arabs departed and made for Cyzicus, which they captured and converted into a fortified camp to spend the winter. The Eastern Roman Empire was under constant Ottoman pressure ever since the new conquerors appeared in the Anatolia. When Muslim forces failed again in the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople (717-718), conquering the ancient Christian capital became something of an obsession for a succession of caliphates and sultanates. [26] The subsequent peace also gave a much-needed respite from constant raiding to Asia Minor, and allowed the Byzantine state to recover its balance and consolidate itself following the cataclysmic changes of the previous decades. Nevertheless, just as deeply entrenched was the understanding that Byzantine control of Constantinople was a necessary bastion against Muslim control of land and sea in the eastern Mediterranean. [59][60] Henry Yule remarked with some surprise the accuracy of the account in Chinese sources, which even named the negotiator of the peace settlement as "Yenyo", or Ioannes Pitzigaudes, the unnamed envoy sent to Damascus in Edward Gibbon's account in which he mentions an augmentation of tributary payments a few years later due to the Umayyads facing some financial troubles. This was followed by the landing of Byzantine forces in Syria in 677/678, which began the Mardaite uprising that threatened the Caliphate's grip on Syria enough to result in the peace agreement of 678/679. [62][63][64], Constantin Zuckerman believes that an obscure passage in Cosmas of Jerusalem's commentary on Gregory of Nazianzus, written in the early eighth century, can only refer to the Arab blockade of Constantinople. Emperor Constantine XI named Giustiniani commander of his land defenses and spent the rest of the winter strengthening the city for a siege. According to the account of Theophanes, they landed on the Thracian shore near Hebdomon in April, and until September were engaged in constant clashes with the Byzantine troops. When combined with a large metal chain that had been drawn across the Golden Horn, Constantine was confident that the city’s defenses could repel a naval assault and withstand Mehmed’s land forces until relief came from Christian Europe. The desert tribesmen of Arabia form the bulk of the Muslim armies. Fall of Constantinople, (May 29, 1453), conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire. In the early hours of May 29, Ottoman labourers filled the moat surrounding the city. [48][49] The peace lasted until Constantine IV's son and successor, Justinian II (r. 685–695, 705–711), broke it in 693, with devastating consequences: the Byzantines were defeated, Justinian was deposed and a twenty-year period of anarchy followed. [29] Both Byzantine and Arab chroniclers record the siege as lasting for seven years instead of five. Mehmed II and his army were remarkably restrained in their handling of affairs after the fall of Constantinople. The Muslim in those early times knew the importance of the city and its excellent location as well as the prophet’s, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam the prophecy. In 1453 the Turkish Ottoman Empire captured the city of Constantinople. [46][47]In the Muslim world, after the death of Mu'awiya in 680, the various forces of opposition within the Caliphate manifested themselves. [1][2][3] Mu'awiya also spearheaded the development of a Muslim navy, which within a few years grew sufficiently strong to occupy Cyprus and raid as far as Kos, Rhodes and Crete in the Aegean Sea. [26][27][15][28] In fact, the "siege" of Constantinople was a series of engagements around the city, which may even be stretched to include Yazid's 669 attack. Login with Gmail. The latter, midway between Syria and Constantinople, was converted into a forward supply base and centre for Muslim naval raids. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Myles Hudson was an Editorial Intern at Encyclopædia Britannica. Crusades - Crusades - From Constantinople to Antioch: Late in May 1097 the Crusaders and a contingent of Byzantine soldiers reached the capital of the Turkish sultanate, Nicaea (now İznik, Turkey), which surrendered to the Byzantines on June 19. In May 1453, the Ottomans, led by Mehmed II, defeated the Byzantine Empire and took control of Constantinople, the capital of the Empire. He was carried to the rear, and his absence sowed confusion and lowered morale among the ranks. Hungary was the primary European threat to the Ottomans on land, and Venice and Genoa controlled much of the Aegean and Black seas. With the siege of Istanbul , the Ottomans proceeded to establish hegemony over numerous independent Turkish states (Beylik) within Anatolia . [40] Conversely, Byzantine prestige reached new heights, especially in the West: Constantine IV received envoys from the Avars and the Balkan Slavs, bearing gifts and congratulations and acknowledging Byzantine supremacy. No … Mu'awiya dispatched another army, led by his son (and future Caliph) Yazid, to Fadhala's aid. The Prophet (Allah’s peace be upon him) had prophesized the downfall of Istanbul at the hands of the Muslims when he said: “You will certainly conquer Constantinople. In 716, after years of preparations, the Arabs, led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, invaded Byzantine Asia Minor. Although it had lost all of its territories, the city still commanded great respect as the seat of the Byzantine Empire. These land expeditions were sometimes coupled with naval raids against the coasts of southern Asia Minor. The country was governed by the East Roman civil service and military, both of which were filled by the Greek-speaking ruling class to the general exclusion of the native Coptic-speaking Egyptians. [53][54] The most prominent among them in later tradition is Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, one of the early companions (Anṣār) and standard-bearer of Muhammad, who died of illness before the city walls during the siege and was buried there. Thus the tomb was left in peace, and even became a site of veneration by the Byzantines, who prayed there in times of drought. [58] They record that the large, well-fortified capital city of Fu lin (拂菻, i.e. He was given the task of preparing the last great assault. Hungary refused to assist, and, instead of sending men, Pope Nicholas V saw the precarious situation as an opportunity to push for the reunification of the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, a priority of the papacy since 1054. the Umayyad Arabs) and their commander "Mo-yi" (Chinese: 摩拽伐之, Pinyin: Mó zhuāi fá zhī), who Friedrich Hirth has identified as Mu'awiya. [67], Coordinates: 41°00′44″N 28°58′34″E / 41.0122°N 28.9760°E / 41.0122; 28.9760, Major conflict of the Arab–Byzantine Wars, Opening moves: the campaigns of 672 and 673, Arab attacks and related expeditions in 674–678, "East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. There were many attempts to conquer it. It mentions how Constantine IV had ships driven (probably on wheels) across the Thracian Chersonese from the Aegean to the Sea of Marmara, a major undertaking for imperial navy ships and one which only makes sense if the Dardanelles was blocked by the Arabs at Cyzicus. Rumeli Fortress (Rumeli Hisarı) on the European bank of the Bosporus, Istanbul. They mounted a frontal assault of the land walls on April 7, but the Byzantines repelled them and were able to repair the defenses. It is probable that the death of admiral Yazid ibn Shagara, reported by Arab chroniclers for 677/678, is related to this defeat. [7], The peace lasted until the end of the Muslim civil war in 661, from which Mu'awiya and his clan emerged victorious, establishing the Umayyad Caliphate. Constantinople was a constant source of irritation to the Ottomans. [41], The failure of the Arabs before Constantinople coincided with the increased activity of the Mardaites, a Christian group living in the mountains of Syria that resisted Muslim control and raided the lowlands. The city’s defenders continued to repair the walls at night and reinforced areas at the damaged Gate of St. Romanus and the Blachernae sector. Mehmed surrounded Constantinople from land and sea while employing cannon to maintain a constant barrage of the city’s formidable walls. Read Wikipedia in Modernized UI. As reported by the Byzantine chronicler Theophanes the Confessor, the Arab attack was methodical: in 672–673 Arab fleets secured bases along the coasts of Asia Minor, and then proceeded to install a loose blockade around Constantinople. [65], Based on a re-evaluation of the original sources used by the medieval historians, the Oxford scholar James Howard-Johnston, in his 2010 book Witnesses to a World Crisis: Historians and Histories of the Middle East in the Seventh Century, rejects the traditional interpretation of events, based on Theophanes, in favour of the Syriac chroniclers' version. [31][32][33] Thus from the Arab sources it is only known that Abdallah ibn Qays and Fadhala ibn 'Ubayd raided Crete and wintered there in 675, while in the same year Malik ibn Abdallah led a raid into Asia Minor. On its way back to Syria, the Arab fleet was almost annihilated in a storm off Syllaion. By the mid-15th century, constant struggles for dominance with its Balkan neighbours and Roman Catholic rivals had diminished Byzantine imperial holdings to Constantinople and the land immediately west of it. Just before dawn, the sultan launched a coordinated artillery, infantry, and naval assault on Constantinople. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. [20][21], Accordingly, in 672 three great Muslim fleets were dispatched to secure the sea lanes and establish bases between Syria and the Aegean. [19] The undertaking followed a careful, phased approach: first the Muslims had to secure strongpoints and bases along the coast, and then, with Cyzicus as a base, Constantinople would be blockaded by land and sea and cut off from the agrarian hinterland that supplied its food. His fleet, equipped with Greek fire, routed the Arab fleet. Following the disastrous Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the Byzantine Empire withdrew the bulk of its remaining forces from the Levant into Asia Minor, which was shielded from the Muslim expansion by the Taurus Mountains. The peace treaty, of a nominal 30-year duration, provided that the Caliph would pay an annual tribute of 3,000 nomismata, 50 horses and 50 slaves. The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb (Arabic: الفَتْحُ الإسْلَامِيُّ لِلمَغْرِبِ ‎) continued the century of rapid Muslim conquests following the death of Muhammad in 632 and into the Byzantine-controlled territories of Northern Africa. If there will be no second conquest of Constantinople, what then is the meaning of those narrations that speak of the ’emergence of dajjal’ shortly after this conquest. The Byzantine-Arab Wars were between the Byzantine Empire and at first the Rashidun and then the Umayyad caliphates.. He asserted this claim with a series of campaigns that thoroughly subjugated both the Balkans and Greece by the late 15th century. These were drawn out until 679, giving the Arabs time for a last raid into Asia Minor under 'Amr ibn Murra, perhaps intended to put pressure on the Byzantines. Thus the capture of an island named Arwad "in the sea of Kustantiniyya" is recorded for 673/674, although it is unclear if this refers to the Sea of Marmara or the Aegean, and Yazid's 676 expedition is also said to have reached Constantinople. An army consisting of the best (soldiers) of the people of the earth at that time will come from Medina (to counteract them). After pausing to reposition his cannon, Mehmed reopened fire and thereafter maintained daily bombardment. [58] The Chinese histories then explain that the Arabs forced the Byzantines to pay tribute afterwards as part of a peace settlement. Mehmed was 21 years old at the time, and Istanbul has remained in Muslim hands ever since. This allowed the sultan to send in another Janissary regiment and take the inner wall at the Gate of St. Romanus. The Ar… According to Muslim tradition, Constantine IV threatened to destroy his tomb, but the Caliph warned that if he did so, the Christians under Muslim rule would suffer. Had it fallen, the Empire's remaining provinces would have been unlikely to hold together, and would have become easy prey for the Arabs. Mehmed ordered a third attack on the gate, this time with one of his own palace regiments of 3,000 Janissaries.